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Nicotinamide CAS 98-92-0 (nicotinamide; niacinamide), also known as nikinamide, is an amide compound of nicotinic acid. It is a white crystalline powder; odourless or almost odourless, bitter taste; slightly moisture-attracting. It is soluble in water or ethanol and dissolves in glycerol. It is mainly used clinically for the prevention and treatment of pellagra, stomatitis, tongue inflammation, sick sinus node syndrome, atrioventricular block and other problems.
2.Physical and Chemical Properities
Properties: white needle crystal or crystalline powder, odourless or slightly odorous, slightly bitter taste.
Density (g/mL,25℃): 1.40
Melting point (ºC): 128-131
Boiling point (ºC, atmospheric pressure): 257.7
Self-ignition point or ignition temperature (ºC): 480
Solubility: 1g of this product is soluble in 1mL of water, 1.5mL of alcohol and 10mL of glycerol, insoluble in ether.
Biochemical research; nutrient component of tissue culture medium; clinical drug for vitamin B group, used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra and stomatitis and tongue inflammation.
It is an essential nutrient for mammals. Water solubility is better than niacin, but it is easy to form complexes with vitamin C and clumping. Dosage 30mg/kg.
Niacinamide and niacin can be used on most occasions, niacin also produces niacinamide in animals. The lack of niacinamide in the body will get pellagra, so this product can prevent pellagra. It plays a role in the metabolism of proteins and sugars and improves nutrition in humans and animals. It is used as a nutritional additive in cosmetics. It is also used in medicine and as an additive in food and feed.
Niacinamide, a derivative of vitamin B3, is also a recognized skin anti-ageing ingredient in the field of cosmetic dermatology and has become increasingly important in recent years. Its most important effect in skin anti-ageing is to reduce and prevent the dull, yellowish, and vegetable skin tone that occurs during early ageing. Of course, niacinamide contributes much more than that to the skin, also repairing the damaged stratum corneum lipid barrier and improving skin resistance. There are also some effects that may be overlooked, that is, the deepwater locking effect of niacinamide, so skincare products containing niacinamide have an extremely strong water locking and moisturizing effect on all. When the action concentration of niacinamide was 0.25mg/mL and 1.25mg/mL, the movement rate of melanosomes in melanocytes increased significantly (P<0.05), while the density of melanosomes in cells decreased with the increase of niacinamide concentration. Conclusion Niacinamide is involved in the transport of melanin and accelerates the rate of melanosome movement in melanocytes, showing that niacinamide regulates the expression of calcium pump, cytokinetic protein Dynein and melanosome movement, and the concentration is an important regulatory factor.
Topical niacinamide can improve the dullness of skin as we age. Randomized studies have shown that with the use of Niacinamide twice daily, skin texture improved significantly from week 8, fine lines and wrinkles were visibly reduced, and by week 12 skin became elastic, hyperpigmentation and erythema were significantly reduced, dullness was visibly reduced, and skin appeared radiant.
Ageing skin has decreasing levels of NADH and NADPH, which control the entire process of intracellular synthesis and catabolism. Niacinamide acts as a precursor of NADH and NADPH by regulating the balance of both levels in vivo. High levels of NADPH exert a powerful antioxidant effect and prevent spontaneous glycosylation of proteins and sugars. Glycosylation reactions produce glycated proteins that are deposited in the dermis and appear yellowish-brown in colour. 80-year-old skin has five times more glycation products in the intradermal collagen than 20-year-old skin. Glycated proteins play an important role in the dull yellow appearance of ageing skin. Niacinamide increases NADPH to exert anti-glycosylation effects, which in turn reduces the yellowing of ageing skin, reduces facial discolouration and improves skin texture.
Enlarged pores are one of the skin texture problems. Topical niacinamide reduces the production of fatty acids and triglycerides in sebum, thereby refining pores and reducing the severity of acne when it occurs.
Ceramides are an important component of the skin barrier. Atopic dermatitis, elderly skin and dry winter skin have significantly reduced levels of ceramides in the stratum corneum. Niacinamide enhances skin barrier function and reduces transdermal water loss by increasing the ceramide content in the stratum corneum.