Views: 103 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-08-04 Origin: Site
Abacavir, sold under the brand name Ziagen, is a medication used to prevent HIV/AIDs. In 1988, Abacavir was developed by Glaxo-Wellcome, a British multinational pharmaceutical company, and approved for use by FDA in the United States in 1998.
Abacavir is a kind of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), so like other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the inactive prodrug is converted by cellular kinases into the active metabolite carbovir triphosphate, an analogue of deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP). Then, it competes with carbovir triphosphate binding into viral DNA, inhibits the activity of the HIV reverse transcriptase Chemicalbook, defects the integrated nucleoside mimics, and finally halts replication of viral DNA.
Melting point: 165°
Specific optical rotation: D20-59.7°;43620-127.8°;36520-218.1°(c=0.15inmethanol)
Boiling point: 636.0±65.0°C(Predicted)
Storage condition: Refrigerator
CAS database: 136470-78-5(CASDataBaseReference)
Usage And Synthesis
Abacavir in combination with other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as didanosine, zalcitabine, lamivudine and stavudine, displays a synergistic therapeutic effect. and provides a triple cocktail for HIV treatment. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has revised its guidelines on antiviral treatment for HIV. For patients who start HIV treatment for the first time, Abacavir is one of the treatments of choice.
Abacavir, having similar medical effects as tenofovir, dose less harm to the mitochondria which helps to prevent fat reduction, pancreatitis, neuritis, lactic acidosis and other adverse reactions. Screening of patients for the presence of HLA-B*57:01 before starting abacavir therapy reduces the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions (HSR).
The FDA once issued a warning that patients who take abacavir and didanosine, have a risk of heart attack and myocardial infarction in patients taking the two drugs. This warning was based on the result of D:A:D study-a large-scale study that analyzed data on adverse reactions to anti-HIV drugs. After receiving the results from the D:A:D study analysis, GlaxoSmithKline analyzed the clinical data they aquired but found no such links between the use of abacavir and the increased risk of heart attack and myocardial infarction in patients.
Abacavir is contraindicated in
(1) patients allergic to abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine, or any other medical product containing abacavir.
(2) patients with end-stage renal disease and hepatic impairment.
(3)patients with abnormal neutrophil count (<0.75x10/L) or abnormal hemoglobin levels (<7.5 g/dL or 4.65 mmol/L).